30 Ekim 2010 Cumartesi
Travellers from a Strange Land - tulku
in Tibetan Buddhism, a tulku (Tibetan:Wylie: sprul sku; ZWPY: Zhügu, also tülku, trulku) is a particular high-ranking lama, of whom the Dalai Lama is one, who can choose the manner of his (or her) rebirth. Normally the lama would be reincarnated as a human, and of the same sex as his (or her) predecessor. However, discussing his own successor, the Dalai Lama has been quoted as saying that "if a woman reveals herself as more useful the lama could very well be reincarnated in this form". The Dalai Lama has also said (when speculating about the possibility that his people might have no use for a Dalai Lama after he dies) that he "might take rebirth as an insect, or an animal...". In contrast to a tulku, all other sentient beings including other lamas, have no choice as to the manner of their rebirth.
In addition to choosing the manner of their rebirth, tulkus are able, on their deathbed, to make known the place of their next birth, sometimes adding various details about their future parents, the situation of their house and so on. If such details are lacking, the monks whose duty is to locate his reincarnation, resort to a lama-tulku astrologer (or tsispa) for directions.
Presently, there are over two thousand tulkus known, although in Tibet before the Chinese invasion there were probably a few thousand. Each tulku has a distinct lineage of rebirths. For example, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama is held to be the reincarnation of each of the previous thirteen Dalai Lamas of Tibet, who are in turn considered to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara, or Chenrezig, Bodhisattva of Compassion, holder of the White Lotus. The vast majority of tulkus (and lamas) are men although there are some women.
The tulku incarnation lineage should not be confused with the lineage of Buddhist masters and their disciples, which is concerned with the oral or written transmission of particular Buddhist teachings and spiritual practice from generation to generation.